The company instead focused on its core customers – serious athletes – and started offering an array of what it called “sports fuel,” such as gels and bars for before a race, and protein smoothies for post-exercise recovery. None of that was revolutionary. But it wasn’t just product tweaks, either. It was a new direction that supplemented the original product.
Prof. Robertson points to Novo Nordisk, which introduced a human growth hormone to the U.S. market in 1997, 10 years after Genentech. But it offered convenient prefilled injection pens that contained multiple doses, eliminating problems about dosage, and was supplemented by NordiCare, a support program that went far beyond anything else in supporting the user. These elements added up to a better system for users.
They were intended to bolster the appeal of his computer, a third-way constellation of offerings around Apple’s main product. “This may seem like academic hairsplitting, but it’s important for managers to realize he was trying to complement the Mac rather than disrupt the music industry,” Prof. Robertson says in the interview.
- What is your key product?
- What is your business promise?
- How will you innovate?
- How will you deliver your innovations to consumers?
When it introduced Bionicle, which used plastic pieces to create action figures, and surrounded it with a video game, direct-to-video movies, and licensed merchandise such as Nike shoes, the company had a winner.
For Guinness, the crown jewel is its beer. But its Irish Pub Concept helps people outside Ireland to establish pubs with authentic Irish items bought from estate sales in that country and, of course, a chance to enjoy the dry stout.